kidney stone treatment india R P STONE CLINIC
Kidney Stone Treatment by Flexible Ureteroscopy / RIRS
Laparoscopic Gynaecology * Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy


Know more about  Kidney Stones Treatment
& Preventions

Kidney stones, or renal calculi, are solid masses made of crystals. Kidney stones originate in your kidneys, but can be found at any point in your urinary tract. The urinary tract includes the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra.
Kidney stones are known to be one of the most painful medical conditions.

The causes of kidney stones vary according to the type of stone. National Institute of Diabetes and Kidney Disease reports that about 1 million people in the United States are treated for kidney stones each year (NIDKD).

 1 What is a kidney stone?
 2 What causes kidney stones?
 3 What are the different types of kidney stones?
 4 Who is at risk for kidney stones?
 5 What are the signs and symptoms of kidney stones?
 6 How are kidney stones diagnosed?
 7 What is the treatment for kidney stones?
 8 What is the prognosis for kidney stones?
 9 Can kidney stones be prevented?



 Kidney Stones

Types --- Symptoms
Causes ---  Investigations  ---  Treatment

 Recurrence & Preventions


• Stone disease is among the most painful and prevalent urological disorders.
• Millions of kidney stone cases are diagnosed each year.
• Majority of kidney stones pass out of the body spontaneously without any intervention.

Following information may help understand the kidney stone disease
• Normally, urine contains many dissolved substances.
• At times, some material many become concentrated in the urine and form solid crystals.
• These crystals can grow and unite to form a stone.
• Stone formed in the kidneys are called kidney stones.
• Ureteral stone is a kidney stone that has left the kidney and moved down to the ureter.

1. The most common stones are calcium oxalate kidney stones followed by calcium phosphate kidney stones.
2. A less common type of stone is caused by infection in the urinary tract. This type of kidney stone is called a struvite or infection stone.
3. Much less common are the pure uric acid kidney stones.
4. Much rarer is the hereditary type of kidney stones called cystine stones and even more rare are those linked to other hereditary disorders.
5. There are number of other stones also which form less than 5% of total kidney stones.


The urinary tract, or system, consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethera. The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs below the ribs in the back. They are responsible for maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance by removing extra water and wastes from the blood and converting it to urine. Urine is carried by ureters, from the kidneys to the bladder.

What are the risk factors for forming kidney stones?
Stone disease is more common in males than females. The male-female ratio is approximately 2:1. The exact cause of kidney stone formation is not known, but there are number of possible factors and connections leading to kidney stone formation.

1. Family history of kidney stones disease.
2. Urinary tract infection can lead to kidney stone disease.
3. High intake of Non vegetarian food may lead to kidney stone disease.
4. High salt intake may have higher incidence of kidney stone formation.
5. Low water intake may be associated with high incidence of kidney stone formation.
6. Decreased amount of urinary citrate also can increase the kidney stone formation.
7. Intake of high oxalate diet such as green leafy vegetables, nuts and chocolate help in formation of kidney stones.
8. Certain diseases like Crohn’s disease, short bowel syndrome etc. increase the incidence of kidney stone formation.
9. Secondary stones may form in patients with obstruction to urinary passage like in prostate enlargement or uretheral stricture etc.
10. Kidney stones are also linked to hyperparathyroidism, an endocrine disorder that result in more calcium in the urine.
11. Rare hereditary disorders such as
     a) Cystinuria can lead to formation of cystine stones in the kidneys.
     b) Primary hyperoxaluria can also lead to kidney stone formation.
12. Certain conditions like
     a) Hypercalciuria of different types can also lead to increased incidence of kidney stone formation.
     b) Hyperuricosuria is also associated with increased incidence of kidney stone formation.

Majority of kidney stones (60-80%) pass out spontaneously with symptoms or without symptoms.

The usual symptoms are: -
1. Severe pain in the back radiating to the front
2. Nausea
3. Vomiting
4. Difficulty in passing urine
5. Blood in urine
6. Dull ache often confused with the muscular pain.
7. If the stone is in the lower end of ureter, patient may feel frequent sensation of incomplete urination.
8. Fever & chills, if there is associated infection.
 Occasionally kidney stones may be painless or silent stones
 Silent stones are dangerous and may cause irreversible damage to the kidney.

How to diagnose kidney stone?

• Plain X-Ray KUB: -
     Provides good information about kidney stones
• Ultrasound Examination: -
     Operator oriented, easy & quick
• Intravenous Pyelogram: -
      Time consuming, requires contrast and may need preparation
• NCCT-KUB ( Non Contrast CT)
     Gold Standard
     No preparation is required
     High efficiency
• In addition to this, there are number of Blood & Urine tests which are required.
• 24 hour’s urine may be required for estimating the daily output of urinary calcium, oxalate, citrate, uric acid, sodium, creatinine etc.

Contact for kidney stone treatment in india and in Delhi NCR region .


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